Department 2

Department 2

Reforms in the Ottoman Empire and their application in Macedonia in the 19th century

Реформите во османлиското царство и нивно применување во Македонија во 19 век

The nineteenth century was a period of evident decline in the power of the Ottoman Empire and its internal disintegration. Preceding the risks of massive internal social and political shocks Sultan Abdülmecid I acceded to adopt regulations to calm the discontent of many layers of the population. First, he declared the Edict of Gülhane (Gülhane Hattı Şerif) - in 1839 and in 1856 he brought the Hattihumayun (Hattı humayun). The Edict of Gülhane proclaimed full equality of citizens before the law, regardless of religion, nationality and status. At the same time it guarantees their honor, life and property ownership. It was published in public places and read the gatherings attended by people of all faiths. In this period of reform or Tanzimat, Macedonian church school communities could be legally established as a form of affirmation and preservation of the religion, language and national and social gathering, to repair and build new Christian churches and monasteries etc.

The Sultan Abdul Aziz continued the reformation of the public and political system of the Ottoman Empire and Sultan Abdul Hamid II in 1876 brought the First Constitution of the Empire. All these reforms, even though they never led to radical changes in the country, however, contributed to the affirmation of the religious, educational and cultural interests and manifestations of the Macedonian society within the Empire.


Султанот Абдул Меџид I (1839-1861)

Sultan Abdülmecid I (1839-1861)
Sultan Abdülmecid I published two particularly significant reformation documents which slightly improved the situation of the Christian population in Macedonia. Those are the Edict of Gülhane (Gülhane Hattı Şerif) of November 3, 1839 and the Hattihumayn (Hattı humayun) of February 18, 1856.

Султанот Абдул Азис (1861-1876)

Sultan Abdülaziz (1861-1876)
Sultan Abdülaziz continued with the reforms of the public and political system in the Ottoman Empire and considered to have laid the initial capitalist forms of management.


Wax figure: WILLIAM GLADSTONE (1809-1898)

He was a British politician and statesman, one of the foremost representatives of the liberal political party. Between 1868 and 1894 he managed four times to win the trust and become acting Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and in the meantime he held the title and duty Chancellor of the Exchequer or responsible for all financial and economic affairs, i.e. equal to the Minister of Finance. He was against the British policy towards the Ottoman Empire and criticized the cruel behavior of the Conservative government of Benjamin Disraeli in terms of the Ottoman atrocities against the Christian population. His policy of supporting small nations in the Balkans against the Ottoman administrative authority lead him to advocate a separate agreement that the territory of the Ottoman Macedonia would be organized as an autonomous region; therefore at the end of his life, in 1897, he emphasized the slogan "Macedonia for the Macedonians" or the full-quoted phrase is: “Why Macedonia couldn’t be for the Macedonians, such as Bulgaria is for the Bulgarians and Serbia is for the Serbs?"

Фотографии од црковната преродба во МакедонијаSome photographs of the church revival in Macedonia. The Metropolitan Theodosius Gologanov as the leading fighter for renewal of the Ohrid Archbishopric. On the set of maps the territory of Macedonia is marked separately.