Department 7

The Macedonian Revolutionary Organization from the end of the Ilinden Uprising until the Young Turk Revolution

With the suppression of the Ilinden Uprising, the situation in Macedonia remained severe, particularly in the Revolutionary District of Bitola. The main factors causing the persistent and extremely distressing position of the Macedonian population were: the measures assumed by the Ottoman regime, the increased presence of armed troops from the neighboring countries and the “vrhovist” squads, which were primarily aimed at diverting the activity of the SMRO (IMRO) in Macedonia or on its takeover. On the other hand, the Organization was preoccupied with the internal ideological contradictions about its organizational structure, management and the method of leading the fight for achieving its main goal – the liberation and the creation of a Macedonian state.

This period of the Macedonian national liberation movement entails many betrayals, uncovering squads of the IMRO, heroic battles in which the Macedonian revolutionaries have shown extraordinary courage, and most of them those who lost their lives immediately after the Ilinden Uprising, all that wrote the most glorious pages of the revolutionary tradition - self-sacrifice. They boldly and unquestionably put their lives in front of the altar of freedom for Macedonia such as: Hristo Uzunov, Gjorgji Sugarev, Nikola Karev, Damjan Gruev, Pando Kljashev, Slavejko Arsov, Sava Mihajlov and others.

This Department contains some of the most important events and personalities of the IMRO that marked the period after the Ilinden Uprising of 1903. Through wax figures, paintings, portraits and mass scenes, including original documents, photographs and weapons, you can familiarize with the most tragic battles, the death of famous warlords and leaders of the IMRO, which are permanently inscribed in the shared memory of the Macedonian people as fighters for an independent Macedonian state.


ЃОРЃИ СУГАРЕВ (1879-1906),


He was a teacher, a revolutionary and a military commander proficient in several languages ​​including: Greek, Turkish, Bulgarian and Russian. In 1900 he was elected member of the Bitola District Revolutionary Committee, and then its Secretary and Military Commander. At the Congress in Smilevo, where the decision for raising an uprising was adopted and the method to lead the same, Sugarev opposed the decision on the uprising at that point, although he was a supporter of the uprising and took part in it. After the Ilinden Uprising he participated in the restoration of the Organization backing his viewpoints on decentralization and democratization of the revolutionary activity. In 1906, he was betrayed in an Ottoman ambush however, he killed himself without having to leave the possibility of being captured alive.
ХРИСТО УЗУНОВ (1878-1905)

HRISTO UZUNOV (1878-1905)

He was a revolutionary, a warlord and a teacher, also the coordinator of the organizational work in the Ohrid-Struga region. As a participant in the Ilinden Uprising, after its suppression by the Ottoman army, he stayed in Macedonia in order to rearrange the revolutionary activity. His activities in the period following the Ilinden Uprising were mainly directed on the fight against the foreign propaganda in Macedonia and resolving the ideological contradictions and problems the Macedonian Revolutionary Organization was facing. In 1905, Uzunov and his squad were betrayed and after the fierce resistance by the revolutionaries, they committed self-immolation to avoid being captured alive.

Андартскиот масакр во с. Загоричани, Костурско, 1905

The Andartian Massacre in the village of Zagorichani, Kostur, 1905

Greek Andartian Chetnik formations, dressed in uniforms of the Greek army, led by Georgios Vardas -Contos, Georgios Katehalis – Rouvas, Captain Doukas, Georgios Dikonimos - Makris and others, on March 27, 1905, set the village Zagorichani (Kostur) on fire, and ruthlessly massacred the defenseless population. The Andartians killed about 80 villagers (men, women and children), and most of the village was burnt. This act of the Greek Andartians posed pressure on the Macedonian population to accept the jurisdiction of the Tsarigrad Ecumenical Patriarchate, which was governed by Greek religious dignitaries.


He was a representative of the rebel (ajduks) movement in Macedonia, and with the emergence of the MRO he was included in its ranks as a revolutionary, rising later as a military commander in Gevgelija and its surrounding area and the Enidze – Vardar region. As a revolutionary and a warlord he distinguished himself particularly as a fighter and organizer of the fight against the Greek Andartian and “Vrhovist” squads in the southern coastal part of the geographical territory of Macedonia. Upon suppression of the Ilinden Uprising, where he previously took part, he especially distinguished himself as an ardent fighter against the Greek armed propaganda in the Enidze-Vardar region. The so-called “Macedonian Robin Hood” by the American writer Albert Sonnichsen in 1910 while returning from Bulgaria to Macedonia reinstated the revolutionary actions, but he got killed in the Enidze-Vardar region in 1911.
He was an American journalist and a member and Secretary of the Macedonian Committee in New York, founded in 1904 by the American-Macedonian community, in order to help with resources and simultaneously to represent the effort of the MRO to the world. In 1904 he was sent to Bulgaria as a correspondent for various newspapers in order to become better acquainted with the fight in Macedonia and describe it. In early 1906 he transfers to Macedonia, where he participated as a Macedonian revolutionary in the Macedonian revolutionary squad for a few months. Subsequently, his staying in Macedonia, upon his return to the US resulted in preserving the memory of the Macedonian Struggle through his novel “Confessions of a Macedonian Bandit” (“Confessions of a Macedonian Bandit”, 1909).