Department 9

Balkan Wars 1912 – 1913  

Балканските војни 1912-1913 година

1912 and 1913 were filled with events that left extremely severe consequences for Macedonia and the Macedonian people. The First and the Second Balkan War and the two uprisings that were raised against the Serbian occupation in the Tikvesh and Ohrid and Debar region, were crushed resulting in atrocities on the innocent Macedonian population, displayed forward the extremely antagonistic interests of the Macedonian people and its neighbors. Unlike the Macedonian people who fought for liberation from the Ottoman rule for several decades through more organized forms for independence and statehood, the neighboring Christian states fought to satisfy their aspirations towards the territory of Macedonia, through divisions and appropriations.

During these wars most of the armed taskforces of the Organization and additional Macedonian volunteers who felt that their participation in the expulsion of the Ottoman authorities will fulfill the freedom of their homeland, sincerely believing in the calls of the neighboring monarchs and governments of their liberation mission in Macedonia. The squads of the Organization first liberated the Macedonian cities: Thessaloniki, Bansko, Melnik, Kilkis, Ohrid, Veles, Kratovo, Krushevo, Kostur and others. On the other hand, the organizations and groups assembled of Macedonian intellectuals abroad raised their voices against the divisions of Macedonia, promoting a national and state-building program in front of the Great powers to resolve the Macedonian issue.


ПЕТАР ЧАУЛЕВ (1882-1925)

PETAR CHAULEV (1882-1925)

He was a revolutionary, a teacher and warlord. In 1899 he was appointed to organize the revolutionary committees in Ohrid, Prespa and Lerin. During the Ilinden Uprising he acted in the Ohrid region, and after the uprising he fled to Bulgaria. In 1911 he was elected member of the Central Committee of the IMRO, together with Todor Aleksandrov and Hristo Chernopeev, and in 1913 he was one of the organizers of the Ohrid-Debar Uprising raised against the Serbian authorities in the divided Macedonia. In 1915, during the First World War, he was appointed District Administrator of Ohrid, and after World War I he was among the founders of the IMRO (autonomist) together with Todor Aleksandrov and Alexander Protogerov. In 1924 he was a signatory of the May Manifesto which provided unification of the organizations and joint action in cooperation with the USSR and the Comintern. In 1924 he was killed in Milan, Italy, as one of the victims of mutual weighs and fratricides in the Macedonian revolutionary movement.


He was a Macedonian historian, ethnographer, cartographer and publisher, teacher, founder and co-founder of companies among the Macedonians in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) and he also participated in the October Revolution. He studied at the Novgorod and the St. Petersburg Spiritual Seminary where by getting acquainted with other Macedonian intellectuals he participated in the foundation of the Macedonian Science and Literature Association “St. Clement”. The Company focused on developing a national consciousness among the membership, including study of the language, songs, customs and the history of Macedonia in ethnographic and geographic terms. In 1913, as a result of the First Balkan War, Chupovski sent a Memorandum and a map of Macedonia in order to show the Great powers that the division of Macedonia could prevent the peace in the Balkans, noting that it is necessary to create a separate state on the Macedonian territory in a Balkan Federation that will ensure peace in the region. The group around Dimitri Chupovski issued the newspaper “Makedonski Glas (Macedonian Voice)”, and since 1917 he was founder of the Macedonian Revolutionary Committee that published the manifesto “Balkan Federal Democratic Republic” as a common program declaration of the Macedonian Association “Ss. Cyril and Methodius” and of the editorial board to the newspaper “Makedonski Glas”.